Here we explain the importance of information technology in the development of society, through scientific and technical information.
CONCEPT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Information technology refers to a set of methods, production processes, software, and hardware combined in a network of processes for collecting, processing, storing, transferring, and displaying information.
The purpose of the operation of this network, i.e. information technology, is to reduce the labor intensity of the processes of using information resources as well as to increase their reliability and efficiency.
The effectiveness of information technology is ultimately determined by the qualification of the subjects of computerization processes. At the same time, technologies should be as accessible as possible to consumers.
It is possible to classify information technologies from different points of view. For example:
Information technologies can be distinguished according to the type of information processed.
The division is rather arbitrary because most information technologies can support other types of information. For example, word processors can also perform simple calculation activities, and table processors not only handle numerical information but can also generate graphs. However, each type of technology is primarily oriented to work with the information of a particular type.
Modification of the elements that make up information technology makes it possible to form new technologies in different computing environments.
Information technologies can be divided into the following: assistive (OIT) and functional (FIT).
Assistive technologies are information processing technologies that can be used as tools in various subject areas. At the same time, they can offer solutions for different types of tasks and varying degrees of complexity. ILOs can be divided into task classes; depending on the type of ILO, different types of software components and tools are used. When ILOs are combined by subject matter, the problem of system integration arises, i.e., bringing different technologies into a single standard interface.
Functional information technology (FIT) is a modification of the provision of technologies for specific subject matter tasks, i.e. a subject matter technology is implemented. Subject matter technologies and information technology influence each other.
For example, the emergence of plastic cards as carriers of financial information has fundamentally changed the subject of technology. A completely new information technology had to be created. But the opportunities offered by new information technologies have in turn influenced the technology of plastic media (e.g. in the field of security).
TYPES OF INFORMATION
Information can be divided into the following types:
Scientific information. This is legitimate information that correctly represents the unbiased reasoning of the nature of social thinking.
Scientific information is divided into fields of acquisition or introduction (technical, political struggle, etc.); in designation: group and special; in types of support: on paper – documentary, in computer memory.
Technical information. It is used and noticed in solving the newest problems (design, scientific and technical processes, etc.).
Scientific-technical information circulates in the sphere of material-technical production.
Planning and financial information have a comprehensive ethics on the course of production, and financial attributes.
The higher level of information is considered knowledge. Skills arise as a result of theoretical and practical work. The repetition type of skills is distinguished by the highest degree of structuring. With the development of society, information as generalized technological knowledge becomes the basis of the information service of society in all types of its work.
Along with energy, useful fossils, etc., information is the source of society. With the shift of scientific and technological progress, the informer becomes an unusually basic state source. The efficiency of industrial exploitation of information sources describes the financial power of the state.
The scientific and technical basis for the formation and exploitation of information sources is made by the computer industry. However, the transfer of labor sources from the field of physical production to the field of information leads to the era of information collapse.
Now the amount of information flowing in industry, management, and science is reaching alarming values. This may lead to an information explosion, i.e. to a very rapid end. It is possible to demonstrate the approaching collapse:
The time frame for doubling the size of the information collected by scientific expertise is 2 to 3 years.
The physical costs of storing, transmitting, and processing information are higher than the energy costs.
The level of radio emission in some areas is close to the level of radio emission from the sun.
In this informational state of society, the efficient use of information sources is very valuable. Three main branches are responsible for the use of information sources: computer science, industrial electronics, and communication play the same role for developed countries as simple industry used to play.
Active information sources are part of public information sources that, in one way or another, are available to users on a commercial basis. The ratio of the size of active information sources to the total size of public information sources is one of the most important financial characteristics of the state.